Does anyone remember Father Guido Sarducci and his Five Minute University? (He was one of my most favorite Saturday Night Live characters. Look him up on YouTube. You will be glad you did.) Well, I need him right now to condense this down to a few easy sentences.
Basically: Use a lens that will allow you to fill the frame of your photo. Remember, a 50mm lens is the standard "what-we-see-with-our-own-eyes" lens, so lenses below 50mm are wide angle (we can fit more into the photo with a wide angle lens). You can still fill your frame with a wide angle and close up work, but your photo will have distortion. Sometimes you may want distortion for a different look. Sometimes you may not. Choose accordingly. Telephoto lenses can also help you get what you want in the frame by zooming in closer to the subject. They are good if you don't want to disturb your subject, like with the photo of Lilah, hiding from winter, above.
Understand: You may cut off elements of your subject to fill the frame.
Both of the above photos are older photos I had taken that I felt were good examples of this week's topic. Below are the photos I took after our snow storm this past week. Lilah, our snowbunny, is demonstrating the original photo, which shows way too much yard fence and other distractions, and then the cropped down, frame-filling version, which focuses more on her as the subject.
You can see how filling the frame can definitely help a photo keep your eye on the prize!